Macro-Economics Study Questions and Answers

1. A nation’s gross domestic product (GDP):
A) is the dollar value of the total output produced within the borders of the nation.
B) is the dollar value of the total output produced by its citizens, regardless of where they are living.
C) can be found by summing C + In + S + Xn.
D) is always some amount less than its C + Ig + G + Xn.
2. A nation’s gross domestic product (GDP):
A) can be found by summing C + Ig + G + Xn.
B) is the dollar value of the total output produced by its citizens, regardless of where they are living.
C) can be found by summing C + S + G + Xn.
D) is always some amount less than its NDP.
3. The GDP is the:
A) monetary value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year.
B) national income minus all nonincome charges against output.
C) monetary value of all economic resources used in producing a year’s output.
D) monetary value of all goods and services, final and intermediate, produced in a specific year.
4. Suppose Smith pays $100 to Jones.
A) We can say with certainty that the GDP has increased by $100.
B) We can say with certainty that the GDP has increased, but we cannot determine the amount.
C) We can say with certainty that the nominal GDP has increased, but we can’t say whether real GDP has increased or decreased.
D) We need more information to determine whether GDP has changed.
5. Suppose the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a particular country in 2001 is $500 billion and the total market value of final goods and services sold is $450 billion. We can conclude that:
A) GDP in 2001 is $450 billion.
B) NDP in 2001 is $450 billion.
C) GDP in 2001 is $500 billion.
D) inventories in 2001 fell by $50 billion.
6. National income accountants can avoid multiple counting by:
A) including transfers in their calculations.
B) counting both intermediate and final goods.
C) only counting final goods.
D) only counting intermediate goods.
7. Gross domestic product (GDP) measures and reports output:
A) as an index number.
B) in percentage terms.
C) in dollar amounts.
D) in quantities of physical units (for example, pounds, gallons, and bushels).
8. GDP may be defined as:
A) the monetary value of all goods and services (final, intermediate, and non-market) produced in a given year.
B) total resource income less taxes, saving, and spending on exports.
C) the economic value of all economic resources used in the production of a year’s output.
D) the market value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a specific year.
9. By summing the dollar value of all market transactions in the economy we would:
A) be determining the market value of all resources used in the production process.
B) obtain a sum substantially larger than the GDP.
C) be determining value added for the economy.
D) be measuring GDP.
10. The term “final goods and services” refers to:
A) goods and services that are unsold and therefore added to inventories.
B) goods and services whose value has been adjusted for changes in the price level.
C) goods and services purchased by ultimate users, as opposed to resale or further processing.
D) the excess of U.S. exports over U.S. imports.
11. If intermediate goods and services were included in GDP:
A) the GDP would then have to be deflated for changes in the price level.
B) nominal GDP would exceed real GDP.
C) the GDP would be overstated.
D) the GDP would be understated.
12. Which of the following is a final good or service?
A) diesel fuel bought for a delivery truck
B) fertilizer purchased by a farm supplier
C) a haircut
D) Chevrolet windows purchased by a General Motors assembly plant
13. Which of the following is an intermediate good?
A) the purchase of gasoline for a ski trip to Colorado
B) the purchase of a pizza by a college student.
C) the purchase of baseball bats by a professional baseball team.
D) the purchase of jogging shoes by a professor
14. Tom Atoe grows tomatoes for home consumption. This activity is:
A) excluded from GDP in order to avoid double counting.
B) excluded from GDP because an intermediate good is involved.
C) productive but is excluded from GDP because no market transaction occurs.
D) included in GDP because it reflects production.
15. GDP includes:
A) neither intermediate nor final goods.
B) both intermediate and final goods.
C) intermediate, but not final, goods.
D) final, but not intermediate, goods.
16. GDP can be calculated by summing:
A) consumption, investment, government purchases, exports, and imports.
B) investment, government purchases, consumption, and net exports.
C) consumption, investment, wages, and rents.
D) consumption, investment, government purchases, and imports.
17. In national income accounting, consumption expenditures include purchases of:
A) both new and used consumer goods.
B) automobiles for personal use, but not houses.
C) consumer durable and nondurable goods, but not services.
D) consumer nondurable goods and services, but not consumer durable goods.
18. In national income accounting, consumption expenditures include:
A) purchases of both new and used consumer goods.
B) consumer durable goods and consumer nondurable goods, but not services.
C) consumer durable goods, consumer nondurable goods, and services.
D) changes in business inventories.
19. Net exports are:
A) that portion of consumption and investment goods sent to other countries.
B) exports plus imports.
C) exports less imports.
D) imports less exports.
20. Gross investment refers to:
A) private investment minus public investment.
B) net investment plus replacement investment.
C) net investment after it has been “inflated” for changes in the price level.
D) net investment plus net exports.
21. Net exports are negative when:
A) a nation’s imports exceed its exports.
B) the economy’s stock of capital goods is declining.
C) depreciation exceeds domestic investment.
D) a nation’s exports exceed its imports.
22. Which of the following is not economic investment?
A) the purchase of a drill press by the Ajax Manufacturing Company
B) the purchase of 100 shares of AT&T by a retired business executive
C) construction of a suburban housing project
D) the piling up of inventories on a grocer’s shelf
23. Which of the following do national income accountants consider to be “investment”?
A) the purchase of an automobile for private, nonbusiness use
B) the purchase of a new house
C) the purchase of corporate bonds
D) the purchase of gold coins
24. GDP is equal to:
A) C + Ig + G + X n.
B) C + Ig + G – X n.
C) C + In + G + X n.
D) C + In + G – X n.
25. Economists define investment to include:
A) any increase in business inventories.
B) the addition of cash to a savings account.
C) the purchase of common or preferred stock.
D) the purchase of any durable good, for example, an automobile or a refrigerator.
26. As defined in national income accounting, investment includes:
A) business expenditures on machinery and equipment.
B) all consumption.
C) imports, but not exports.
D) all nonfood items.
27. Suppose that inventories were $40 billion in 2000 and $50 billion in 2001. In 2001, accountants would:
A) add $10 billion to other elements of investment in calculating total investment.
B) subtract $10 billion from other elements of investments in calculating total investment.
C) add $45 billion (= $90/2) to other elements of investment in calculating total investment.
D) subtract $45 billion (= $90/2) from other elements of investment in calculating total investment.
28. Suppose that inventories were $80 billion in 2000 and $70 billion in 2001. In 2001, accountants would:
A) add $10 billion to other elements of investment in calculating total investment.
B) subtract $10 billion from other elements of investments in calculating total investment.
C) add $45 billion (= $90/2) to other elements of investment in calculating total investment.
D) subtract $45 billion (= $90/2) from other elements of investment in calculating total investment.
29. Suppose that GDP was $200 billion in year 1 and that all other components of expenditures remained the same in year 2 except that business inventories increased by $10 billion. GDP in year 2 is:
A) $180 billion.
B) $190 billion.
C) $200 billion.
D) $210 billion.
30. Suppose that GDP was $200 billion in year 1 and that all other components of expenditures remained the same in year 2 except that business inventories fell by $10 billion. GDP in year 2 is:
A) $180 billion.
B) $190 billion.
C) $200 billion.
D) $210 billion.
31. If the economy adds to its inventory of goods during 2001:
A) gross investment will exceed net investment by the amount of the inventory increase.
B) this amount should be ignored in calculating 2001’s GDP.
C) this amount should be subtracted in calculating 2001’s GDP.
D) this amount should be included in calculating 2001’s GDP.
32. The smallest component of aggregate spending in the United States is:
A) net exports.
B) government purchases.
C) investment.
D) consumption.
33. In calculating GDP, governmental transfer payments, such as social security or unemployment compensation, are:
A) not counted.
B) counted as investment spending.
C) counted as government spending.
D) counted as consumption spending.
34. The largest component of total expenditures in the United States is:
A) net exports.
B) government purchases.
C) consumption.
D) gross investment.
35. Government purchases include government spending on:
A) government consumption goods and public capital goods.
B) government consumption goods only.
C) public capital goods only.
D) government consumption goods, public capital goods, and transfer payments.
36. In national income accounting, government purchases include:
A) purchases by Federal, state, and local governments .
B) purchases by the Federal government only.
C) government transfer payments.
D) purchases of goods for consumption, but not public capital goods.
37. Transfer payments are:
A) excluded when calculating GDP because they only reflect inflation.
B) excluded when calculating GDP because they do not reflect current production.
C) included when calculating GDP because they are a category of investment spending.
D) included when calculating GDP because they increase the spending of recipients.
38. The value of U.S. imports is:
A) added to exports when calculating GDP because imports reflect spending by Americans.
B) subtracted from exports when calculating GDP because imports do not constitute spending by Americans.
C) subtracted from exports when calculating GDP because imports do not constitute production in the United States.
D) added when calculating GDP because imports do not constitute production in the United States.
39. In the treatment of U.S. exports and imports, national income accountants:
A) subtract exports, but add imports, in calculating GDP.
B) subtract both exports and imports in calculating GDP.
C) add both exports and imports in calculating GDP.
D) add exports, but subtract imports, in calculating GDP.
40. In calculating the GDP national income accountants:
A) treat inventory changes as an adjustment to personal consumption expenditures.
B) ignore inventories because they do not represent final goods.
C) subtract increases in inventories or add decreases in inventories.
D) add increases in inventories or subtract decreases in inventories.
41. The ZZZ Corporation issued $25 million in new common stock in 2001. It used $18 million of the proceeds to replace obsolete equipment in its factory and $7 million to repay bank loans. As a result, investment:
A) of $7 million has occurred.
B) of $25 million has occurred.
C) of $18 million has occurred.
D) has not occurred.
42. In 2001 Trailblazer Bicycle Company produced a mountain bike which was delivered to a retail outlet in November of 2001. The bicycle was sold to E.Z. Ryder in March of 2002. This bicycle is counted as:
A) consumption in 2001 and as disinvestment in 2002.
B) disinvestment in 2001 and as consumption in 2002.
C) disinvestment in 2001 and as investment in 2002.
D) investment in 2001 and as disinvestment in 2002.
43. In national income accounting, G stands for:
A) government purchases.
B) gross investment.
C) government transfer payments.
D) gross saving.
44. GDP differs from NDP in that:
A) GDP is based on gross exports, while NDP is based on net exports.
B) GDP includes, but NDP excludes, indirect business taxes.
C) net investment is used in calculating GDP and gross investment is used in calculating NDP.
D) gross investment is used in calculating GDP and net investment is used in calculating NDP.
45. If depreciation exceeds gross investment:
A) the economy’s stock of capital may be either growing or shrinking.
B) the economy’s stock of capital is shrinking.
C) the economy’s stock of capital is growing.
D) net investment is zero.
46. The concept of net domestic investment refers to:
A) the amount of machinery and equipment used up in producing the GDP in a specific year.
B) the difference between the market value and book value of outstanding capital stock.
C) gross domestic investment less net exports.
D) total investment less the amount of investment goods used up in producing the year’s output.
47. If depreciation (consumption of fixed capital) exceeds domestic investment, we can conclude that:
A) nominal GDP is rising but real GDP is declining.
B) net investment is negative.
C) the economy is importing more than it exports.
D) the economy is expanding.
48. When an economy’s production capacity is expanding:
A) nominal GDP, but not necessarily real GDP, is rising.
B) net exports is always a positive amount.
C) DI exceeds PI.
D) domestic investment exceeds depreciation.
Use the following to answer questions 49-50:
Economy A: gross investment equals depreciation
Economy B: depreciation exceeds gross investment
Economy C: gross investment exceeds depreciation
49. Refer to the above information. Positive net investment is occurring in:
A) economy A only.
B) economy B only.
C) economy C only.
D) economies A and B only.
50. Other things equal, the above information suggests that the production capacity in economy:
A) B is growing more rapidly than either A or C.
B) A is growing more rapidly than either B or C.
C) A is growing less rapidly than economy B.
D) C is growing more rapidly than economy B.
51. In 1933 net private domestic investment was a minus $6.0 billion. This means that:
A) gross private domestic investment exceeded depreciation by $6.0 billion.
B) the economy was expanding in that year.
C) the production of 1933’s GDP used up more capital goods than were produced in that year.
D) the economy produced no capital goods at all in 1933.

Answer Key
1. A
2. A
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. C
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. C
11. C
12. C
13. C
14. C
15. D
16. B
17. B
18. C
19. C
20. B
21. A
22. B
23. B
24. A
25. A
26. A
27. A
28. B
29. D
30. B
31. D
32. A
33. A
34. C
35. A
36. A
37. B
38. C
39. D
40. D
41. C
42. D
43. A
44. D
45. B
46. D
47. B
48. D
49. C
50. D
51. C